The premonstratensian monastery in Milevsko is the oldest monastery in Southern Bohemia, origins of which date back the 12th century. It was founded in 1185 – 1187 by the local magnate George of Milevsko near an old settlement with a small church devoted to St. Giles. Its first abbot was Jarloch (Gerlachus) who also gained fame thanks to is chronicle, a valuable, source of Czech history covering the years 1167 – 1198. Shortly after its foundation, the monastery was abbed with a large three-aisled basilica with two towers in the façade, part of which was rebuild in the early gothic style in the second half of the 13th century.
The golden age of the monastery dated back to the 14th century, when it had both the small town of Milevsko. And almost 60 villages in the area in its possession. During this time, other valuable buildings were built within the monastery, such as the capitular hall of a significant reconstruction of the st. Giles church.
In April 1420, however the monastery was damaged by the invasion of the hussites and later it was pledged by Emperor Sigismund so the secular aristocracy in particular the Rosenbergs. In the following years the Schwambergs, became the owners and the monastery was dissolved a spiritual centre of became a mere mansion. The Schwambergs sold the Milevsko part of their estate to the Hodějovský family in 1581. Their estate was confiscated after the battle of white Mountain and the monastery. With part of the original property, was returned to the premonstratensians. However it was never restored as an independent monastery, as only apriori, dependent on the Strahov monastery, was established here in 1683.
Some buildings were gradually rebuilt in the Baroque style for spiritual needs. While others served the needs of the estate and brewery. Since the 19th century, however, the premises gradually deteriorated. In 1950 the church property was confiscated by the new communist regime. It was not until 1999 that the monastery in Milevsko was returned to the premonstratensian order, and since the renovations have been taking place. One of the most important of these was the renovations of the façade of the monastery basilica, which took place after 1995. In 2008 the monastery was declared as National cultural monument by the Ministry of culture of the Czech republic. The Milevsko monastery is alive again now-
The wider surroundings of the town of Milevsko have been populated since early prehistoric times. The Slavic population this area has been known since the 8th century. In the 11th and 12th centuries, there were several settlements within the area of todays town the name Milevsko probably derives from one of these that moved from the Vicinity of the monastery roughly to the place of todays E. Beneš square in the second half of the 13th century. In 1327 this new settlement was referred to as the “oppidum”, term for smaller towns with a partial exercise of the town privileges. In 1419 and 1438 Milevsko was referred to in some documents as a town.
The relations between the town and the new owners were not always idyllic, especially when it came to the privilege of brewing beer. Until 1765, the town had rights of high justice and the executions were performed by the headsman on the local execution ground. In 1784 Milevsko broke free from serfdom for an annual fe of 60 Guldens.
In the first half of the 19th century, the town began to develop, in 1838 the first doctor started practice, there years later a post office was established, and in 1875 telegraph came to the town. In November 1889 the first passengers could take a train to Písek or Tábor. Since the mid-19th century, Milevsko has held the tradition of carnival processions, which have been preserved to this day.
During World war I dozens of local people fell on various battle fields. World war II also brought great hardship to the local population, and most Milevsko Jews perished in concentration camps. The town was liberated by the red army on 11th May 1945. The post war years were mainly marked by the development of industry and the establishment of a new air conditiong machinery plant brought new job opportunity the region. The modern are after revolution in 1989 has brought a return to the democratic functioning of the town and the town government.